Ecology and human and environmental health.

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Your task over the next week is to research and present on an ecological issue, answering the big question:

How does ___________ impact on human health and the health of our environment?

The blank can be one of the following issues:

  • Climate change
  • Habitat destruction (deforestation)
  • Introduced species (feral animals or weeds)
  • Pollution (air, water or soil)
  • Over-harvesting (For example; poaching or over-fishing)

Fold your paper in half and half again and write in each of the quarters:

  1. What do you KNOW about your topic?
  2. What do you WANT to know about the topic?
  3. WHERE are you going to find the information you need?
  4. HOW are you going to present your new learning?

Here are some sites to help with your research:

 

Disease

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During our last lesson this term you will be working on a research project about a disease – I would like each person in the class to choose a different disease affecting humans, animals or plants. It can be an infectious, genetic or other non-infectious disease. You will need to find out the following information:

  1. Title slide (Nme of disease and your name)
  2. History and/or discovery
  3. Causes (eg. genetic, dietary, lifestyle, pathogenic – prion, virus, bacteria, parasite etc)
  4. Symptoms
  5. Treatment and/or cure
  6. References (list of where you get your information form)

Here are some to choose from:

  • AIDS
  • Arthritis
  • Anthrax
  • Amoebic dysentry
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis (mad cow disease)
  • Brucellosis
  • Bubonic plague
  • Cancer (choose a particular type eg. breast, lung, colon)
  • Chickenpox
  • Cholera
  • Diabetes
  • Haemophilia
  • Hepatitis
  • Influenza
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • Meningitis
  • Mumps
  • Osteoporosis
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Rabies
  • Ross River Fever
  • Rubella
  • Scurvy
  • Smallpox
  • Tapeworm
  • Tetanus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Yellow Fever

Make sure you read the information and take notes, then write your text – don’t copy and paste! Make sure any images you use are from creative commons sources.

Respiratory System

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Learning Intention: Science Understanding – “Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions. Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.”

Success Criteria:  Students will be able to identify the organs within the respiratory system and describe how it functions. They will understand how the respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems are connected and work together to deliver nutrients and oxygen and remove wastes from every cell within the human body.

So far we have learned about nutrition and the digestive system and how the circulatory system transports materials around the human body. Now we are going to investigate the respiratory system, which provides oxygen to every cell, to allow energy to be released from food. The respiratory system consists of the trachea, bronchus and lungs containing alveloi. There is an important muscle, called the diaphragm, that allows air to be drawn into the lungs and the carbon-dioxide-rich air to be expelled. Access the following sites and then answer the questions below:

  1. Label the diagram of the respiratory system, including the alveoli.
  2. What are the advantages of breathing through your nose?
  3. Why should you blow your nose when you have a cold, rather than sniffing?
  4. What is the function of the epiglottis and happens when you choke?
  5. Where do the respiratory and circulatory systems meet?
  6. Both systems have a large surface area – explain why.
  7. Breathing and respiration have different meanings – explain each.
  8. Both your breathing and heart rate increase during exercise – explain why.
  9. How do high altitudes affect your breathing and circulation? Why might athletes do high altitude training?

Circulatory System

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  • Science Understanding “Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions. Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.”
  • Science Inquiry Skills – “Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships, including using digital technologies as appropriate.”

Learning Intention and Success Criteria: Students will be able to identify the structure and function of organs in the circulatory system and be able to name and describe the components of blood. Students will complete a labelled diagram of the heart and circulatory system and be able to describe how it works.

The Circulatory System is also called the “Cardiovascular System” and consists of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and the five litres of blood (approximately) that flows through this system.

1. Work your way through the National Geographic – Heart Interactive. Label the blank heart diagram with the names of each structure, including the atria, ventricles, aorta and valves.

2. Watch the National Geographic Video – Cardiovascular system and then colour the cardiovascular diagram showing oxygenated (red) and deoxygenated (blue) blood.

3. Access the Blood Buddies – the Australian Red Cross Blood Service website and find out how you are tested for your blood type. Do you know what blood group you belong to? Create a graph (bar graph or pie chart) showing the different blood groups:

  • O positive – 40%
  • O negative – 9 %
  • A positive – 31%
  • A negative – 7 %
  • B positive – 8%
  • B negative – 2%
  • AB positive – 2 %
  • AB negative – 1%

Other information:

Student graph showing percentages of each blood type from Australian Red Cross data using “Create-a-graph”.

Nutrition and the Digestive System

Learning Intention: Students will know the five groups of nutrients and how they contribute to a healthy diet. They will investigate the composition of various foods using food testing experiments, including various bush foods from the school garden and beyond. They will compare the diet of people living in Australia 10,000 years ago with their own diet.

Success Criteria: Students will produce a poster, video or other artifact that demonstrates their understanding of nutrition today and in Australia’s past. Their product will explain the five nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals) and the foods in which these nutrients are found. The importance of fibre and water in the diet will also be discussed.

Links to AusVELS: “Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.”
“Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems.”
“Also, links to cross-curricular priorities – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures.”

This term we started a new topic of work – nutrition and the digestive system. We have discussed the five main nutrients and the importance of water and fibre in a healthy diet. We have also used the model human torso and watched videos to understand how the digestive system works. Mr John Pearce (@mrpbps on Twitter) has shared this wonderful hands-on “Tour of the Digestive System” that we may try too. Parts of Plants we Eat.

We will learn how energy is measured and the energy content of some different foods, using the nutritional information of food labels. Our next tasks will include using various tests to determine what nutrients make up different foods. We will do the following tests:

1.Brown paper or Emulsion test for fats and oils (lipids).
2.Iodine test for starch.
3.Benedict’s solution and heat for glucose (sugar).
4.Copper sulphate (10 drops) and sodium hydroxide (5 drops) for protein.

We will then collect some bush foods from the school garden and Apex Park and test those foods for starch, protein, sugars and lipids. You will then create a product that compares the diet of people in Australia 10,000 years ago to your diet. You may have heard of the “Paleo diet” (also called the “caveman” or “stone-age” diet). It consists mainly of fish, meats, eggs, vegetables, fruit, fungi, roots and nuts and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, potatoes, salt, sugar and processed oils. What would Bear Grylls survive on in the Australian Bush?

Some useful links:

 

The Carbon Cycle

Created using Comic Life

Learning Intention: Students will understand the processes involved in the carbon cycle – photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, combustion and fossil-fuel formation.

Success Criteria: A product that demonstrates their understanding by providing an explanation of each of these processes.

Your assessment task for this unit of work is to produce an artefact that explains your understanding of the carbon cycle. It might be a poster, video, Voicethread, cartoon or slideshow. You could use Comic Life, ToonDoo, a common-craft style video or another tool. Make sure you include the following processes:

  • Photosynthesis – green plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrate (glucose) that is used by all other living organisms as the source of food. (absorbs CO2 and H2O and releases O2)
  • Respiration – all living organisms (with the exception of a few bacteria) use oxygen to convert carbohydrates into energy, releasing carbon dioxide and water into the atmosphere. (Requires O2 and releases CO2 and H2O)
  • Decomposition – Bacteria and fungi break down organic matter (leaves, wood, dead animals etc) into carbon dioxide and water during respiration.(Requires O2 and releases CO2 and H2O)
  • Fossil Fuel formation – Oil, coal and gas are formed after millions of years under extreme pressure and high temperatures, from once living organisms such as trees and microscopic algae.
  • Combustion – wood, gas, oil, coal and other carbon-containing compounds can be burnt with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. (Requires O2 and releases CO2 and H2O)

Some useful resources:

Elements and Compounds

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So far this year, you have learned about the following:

  • An atom consists of positively charged protons and neutrons with no charge in a nucleus in the centre of the atom and much smaller electrons, which are negatively charged and on the outside of the atom.
  • Molecules are tiny particles made up of more than one atom. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
  • Elements are pure substances that are made up of one type of atom. There are 92 naturally occurring elements and some man-made elements.
  • Compounds are substances made up of more than one type of atom, tightly bound together. They can look and behave very differently to the elements that they are made up of.
  • Elements are organised in the periodic table according to the number of protons in their nucleus. Hydrogen is #1 because it has one proton, helium is number 2 because it has 2 protons etc.
  • Each column of the periodic table contains elements with characteristics in common – the noble gases in Group 8 are all very non-reactive elements for example.

Your assessment task for this unit of work is to produce an artefact that explains your understanding of the carbon cycle. It might be a poster, video, Voicethread, cartoon or slideshow. You could use Comic Life, ToonDoo, a common-craft style video or another tool. Make sure you include the following processes:

  • Photosynthesis – green plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrate (glucose) that is used by all other living organisms as the source of food.
  • Respiration – all living organisms (with the exception of a few bacteria) use oxygen to convert carbohydrates into energy, releasing carbon dioxide and water into the atmosphere.
  • Decomposition – Bacteria and fungi break down organic matter (leaves, wood, dead animals etc) into carbon dioxide and water during respiration.
  • Fossil Fuel formation – Oil, coal and gas are formed after millions of years under extreme pressure and high temperatures, from once living organisms such as trees and microscopic algae.
  • Combustion – wood, gas, oil, coal and other carbon-containing compounds can be burnt with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide.

Year 9 Science: Brain and Body Project

Choose one of the following topics and produce a report, poster, slideshow or video that demonstrates your understanding of the subject. Include ten questions to quiz your audience at the end of your presentation.

  • Structure of the brain – what is the structure and function of the parts of this vital organ?
  • Structure of the nervous system – Read pages 38 and 39 and describe the functions of the different parts of the nervous system.
  • Neural disease – Research a brain disease or damage to the spinal cord that impacts on normal body functioning. For example, What are the causes and effects of Alzheimer’s disease, motor-neuron disease or quadriplegia?
  • Chemical warfare – Read questions 40 and 41 and answer the “Remember” and “Think and Discuss” questions on page 41.
  • How do drugs affect the brain? Choose one of amphetamines, alcohol, barbituates, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, GHB or marijuana. (Make sure you answer the questions – under “Investigate” question 12 – in the blue box on page 27)
  • Plant chemicals – research the different chemicals produced by plants and how they function.

Start by completing a “KWWHL chart”

  1. What do you KNOW about your topic?
  2. What do you WANT to know about your topic?
  3. WHERE will you find out what you want to know about the topic?
  4. HOW will you present your work to your peers?
  5. What did you LEARN about your topic (after you have completed your research)

Resources:

NIDA for teens: Brain and addiction

The effect of drugs and alcohol on the adolescent brain

Effects of drugs on the brain and teen moods

Smoking marijuana as teen may have lasting brain effects, study suggests.

Alzheimer’s Disease

 

Year 9 Biology: Cycling of matter

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Learning Intention: Students will develop an understanding of the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles and their importance in ecosystems.

Success Criteria: Students will be able to discuss the different cycles and the processes that occur within each cycle, using the correct terminology.

You have been divided into three groups to learn more about the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles. Your task, as a group, is to produce a slideshow to teach the rest of the class about your cycle. Your slideshow should include at least eight slides, diagrams and an explanation of each of the processes involved (see below). You should also produce a quiz for the rest of the class with at least ten questions about the cycle. You can use Quizlet or Quiz Revolution or the Arcade Game generator on Classtools.net to create your quiz.

Water Cycle: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, erosion and percolation. (Trevor, Jayden, Arron, Jim and Jake)

Carbon Cycle: photosynthesis, respiration, fossil-fuel formation, ocean acidification. (James, Aaron, Bradley, Nathan)

YouTube video by NASA – “Keeping up with carbon”

Nitrogen Cycle: nitrogen-fixing, denitrification, ammonification.(Sarah, Emma, Leah, Elly, Che, Porcha)

More resources: YouTube video about Biogeochemical cycling.

Year 9: Energy of Life

 

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Learning Intention: Students will understand that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another; that almost all the energy on earth comes from our sun and that this energy flows through food chains. Only about 10% of chemical energy is passed form one trophic level to the next, as energy is converted to sound and heat.

Success Criteria: Students will complete the following activities to demonstrate their understanding of the flow of energy through ecosystems.

First, go to the Gould League Food Webs Page and complete the Australian Grasslands Foodweb. Identify the producers, first-order consumers (herbivores) and second-order consumers (carnivores). Take a screenshot of the final food web when you have completed the activity.

Download the graphic organizer document from science-class.net titled “Energy Transfer”. From the “Australian Grasslands Food Web”, complete the worksheet by identifying the producers, herbivores, carnivores and decomposers. Stick this firmly into your book.

Read through the Food Chains, Food Webs, Biomass Pyramids and Cycles page from the Queensland Science Teacher’s Association, then try their quiz. You could also try the McGraw-Hill “Life Science” Quiz.